First section: the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh/Old Testament, 39 Hebrew books composed by Jews between the 12th and 2nd century BCE (roughly); Jewish adherents combine certain texts to make a total of 24 books (more below). A few of the books were written in both Hebrew and Aramaic. TaNaKh is a Jewish term and acronym composed of consonants designating the first letter of the three major divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures:
- Torah (“Law”), also known as the Pentateuch (Greek, “five scrolls”)
- Nevi’im (“Prophets”)
- Kethuvim (“Writings”)
Second section: the New Testament, 27 Greek books composed by early Christians between 50 and 150 CE, divided in four main categories:
Now for a closer look at each section…
Jewish Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) vs. Christian Old Testament
Both the Jewish Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament contain the same number of books, however each arranges and numbers them in a slightly different order (see table).
The Hebrew Bible divides its books into three parts – Torah, Prophets, and Writings. This method reflects the chronological order in which the books were written and subsequently added to the canon.
By contrast, both Catholic and Protestant bibles divide the biblical documents into four major sections, grouping books together according to their literary categories regardless of their original function or date of composition.
Looking at the table on the right, modern versions of the Tanakh list 39 separate Books just like the Christian OT. The first numbered column shows the traditional Jewish way of counting the 39 Books as 24 by combining the double Books (1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings, 1&2 Chronicles and Ezra/Nehemiah) and counting the whole set of Twelve Minor Prophets as a single Book (which it was originally, since they were small enough to be written on a single scroll).
As stated previously, Jews only accept and adhere to the Hebrew Bible while Christians recognize both the Hebrew Bible (their Old Testament) and the New Testament as canon. For those unfamiliar with the biblical religion, this might seem a little odd. Aren’t Christians a separate group from Jews? Don’t Jews and Christians practice two different religions? How come Christians don’t stick with their own group of texts? Contrary to what some radicals preach, Jesus was a Jew; he lived as a Jew and died “King of the Jews.” The Jesus movement was a Jewish movement, namely one centered around apocalypticism. And as Jews, Jesus and his gang adhered to the Law of the Torah and lived by it. One only has to read the New Testament to realize this key fact, as we find references to Old Testament material throughout – some of it cited explicitly. As we’ll explore in a later post, it is only in the years following Jesus’s death and the missions of the Apostle Paul that the religion of Jesus became a religion(s) about Jesus – allowing for early stages of what we may call “Christianity” take shape. Case in point: while you can have Judaism without Christianity, you can’t have Christianity without a Judaic context.
For Jews, the Hebrew Bible is a divine source of answers and guidance, providing an identity through ancestral narratives (via the Patriarchs Abraham, Jacob/Israel, Moses, etc.) as well as the lawful covenants God made with them as his chosen people (see Leviticus or Deuteronomy for example). In contrast, the Hebrew scriptures for Christians are actually about Jesus. This began with Jesus’ earliest disciples, who in an attempt to make sense of why their messiah had been crucified, turned to their sacred writings for hidden answers. By reinterpreting certain passages – many found in the Writings, they concluded that the prophets of the Hebrew Bible had foretold of Jesus’ crucifixion – of a messiah who was supposed to die for the sins of the world. Therefore, the Hebrew Bible became the Old Testament, meaning “old covenant” – that is, the old promise/treaty God made with his people. Now that Jesus had died for our sins, a new covenant was in motion, as laid out in the writings of what were eventually chosen to be the New Testament scriptures.
Overview of The Torah/Pentateuch
The first five books of any Bible. It is also referred to as the Books of Moses, as Moses is the leading human figure throughout beginning with Exodus.
- Genesis: Creation of the cosmos; Adam and Eve; accounts of the Patriarchal forebears of Israel; how God’s people settled in Egypt under Joseph.
- Exodus: Israel’s liberation from Egypt under Moses; journey to Sinai; the Ten Commandments and God’s covenant with Israel on Mt. Sinai.
- Leviticus: The law of sacrifice; the consecration of the priests (Aaron and his sons); what’s clean and unclean; holidays and rules; regulations concerning dedications to God.
- Numbers: Journey to Canaan; 40 years of wandering the wilderness; the journey back to Canaan.
- Deuteronomy: historical prologue; tredaty between God and Israel. This book is seen as the “second law” because the book repeats what has appeared in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers.
Overview of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
The second part of the Hebrew Bible, this section recounts more than 600 year of Israels history (c. 1200-562 BCE). The Prophets contain two sub-groups: the Former Prophets and the Latter Prophets. It’s worth noting that many of the writings of the Latter Prophets are thought by scholars to be older than the narratives of the Former.
- The Former Prophets: (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings – also known as the Deuteronomistic History) The first book begins following the death of Moses and provides a narrative of Israel’s military conquest of Canaan under the newly appointed Joshua. Judges, Samuel, and Kings then describe the rise of Israel as a nation, establishing a monarchy under King David.
- The Latter Prophets: a collection of books named for individual prophets, most of whom were active during the period of the Davidic monarchy. These fifteen texts are divided into two groups: the Major Prophets and the Minor Prophets. This designation exists not because the first three are considered more important, but rather because of their difference in length. None of the Minors were seen as being long enough to be its own book (Obadiah, for instance, is only a single chapter)
- the Major Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel)
- Twelve Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi)
Overview of the Writings (Kethuvim)
The third part of the Hebrew Bible. Here we read texts which diverge largely from the previous sections; instead of narratives alone we find poetry (Psalms), philosophy (Ecclesiastes), and existential exploration (Job). Another trait which sets the Writings apart is that with the exception of Daniel, these works do not do not present themselves as divinely inspired – at least directly.
- Psalms: Translated in English as “The Book of Songs.” In traditional Hebrew: “Book of Praises” – therefore identifying the book as a collection of poems expressing praise, despair, thankfulness, and requests for God’s deliverance. These devotional poems were sung during services at the Jerusalem Temple. It’s also interesting to note that the Final editor of the book arranged the various Psalms into five sections, perhaps imitating the five divisions of the Law.
- Proverbs: Attributed to Solomon, a collection of wise sayings that instruct youth and give general guidance for life well-lived. It personifies wisdom, provides sayings attributed to “the Wise”, and warns against following sinners.
- Job: Named after its protagonist, Job tells of one man’s agony following a bet God makes with Satan, who is not the devil portrayed in Christianity but rather an appointed member of God’s divine council (Ha-Satan is not a name but rather a title, meaning “the accuser” or “the adversary”). The message the narrative sets out to teach readers is that like God’s nature, God’s justice is unknowable; people like Job, no matter how righteous, should not try to seek an answer for why they suffer.
- Song of Songs: Known as “Song of Solomon” from the KJV of the Christian Bible. The phrase “Song of Songs” is a Hebraism that means “The Best Song.” Simply put, it is an erotic love poem about a woman and a prince. One central message to take away from this text is that while passion comes and goes, love abides forever.
- Ruth: The story of a Moabite woman who converts to Judaism and becomes the ancestor of King David. It appears to have been written then as a reminder that David’s ancestry was foreign. Like the Song of Songs, the text never mentions God.
- Lamentations: A series of acrostic poems mourning the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. ‘Nough said.
- Ecclesiastes: Discusses the meaning of life. The author (who certainly wasn’t Solomon despite tradition) finds life to be meaningless since there isn’t much order and sense to God’s actions. Furthermore, he doesn’t believe in an afterlife; this is it. As such, he makes the respectable point that we should all simply concentrate on living life as joyfully as possible before we die.
- Esther: The story of a young Jewish woman who becomes the queen of Persia and saves her people from destruction
- Daniel: The story of a young man taken to Babylon following the conquest of his nation by the Babylonian Empire, his rise to a position of responsibility, and his visions of God’s plans for Babylon and Israel. the Book of Daniel is the first Jewish Apocalyptic work, prophesying the Son of Man and life after death.
- Ezra: Linked closely with the Nehemiah, the book that follows it. The two are considered to have the same author and together counted as one book in Jewish tradition. This text tells of the story of how Ezra, a Jewish priest and scribe, returned to the homeland of Israel following the Babylonian captivity to teach the Law of Moses to the other returning Israelites.
- Nehemiah: The story of Nehemiah’s return to Israel and how he purified the Jewish community and got them to rebuild Jerusalem’s city walls.
- 1 Chronicles: Lists genealogies and focuses on the details of how Saul was unfaithful to God, allowing David to be chosen to taken his place. It parallels Samuel-Kings regarding how David’s kingdom was established, though contradicts the Former Prophets in many historical details.
- 2 Chronicles: Picks up where 1 Chronicles left off with Solomon as king tells his story and that of the subsequent kings of Judah until it is conquered by the Babylonian Empire and its people are taken into exile. The Book largely ignores the history of the northern kingdom of Israel, except as it impinges on the history of the southern kingdom of Judah. The purpose of 2 Chronicles is to demonstrate the decline in the religious life of the faithfulness to Yahweh of both the kings and people of Judah.
Introducing the New Testament
The New Testament is a collection of various writings written by first century Christians following the death of Jesus, whom they believed to be the messiah. Before Jesus, the future messiah – the anointed King of Israel – was perceived to be a powerful figure who would be sent by God to overthrow the foreign oppressors and re-establish God’s kingdom on earth. Of course, Jesus did not fulfill such standard messianic expectations; instead of vanquishing the Roman government he was ultimately crucified by them. How then did his movement continue on? Turning to the Hebraic scriptures for guidance, Jesus’s disciples found passages which – when taken out of their original context – could be applied to his life and death. Thus the followers of Jesus redefined the role of the Messiah. They became convinced that since Jesus had died, the Messiah was supposed to die all along, and that it must have been foretold by the prophets. Why did he have to die? Because we need to be saved from sin. Ever since Adam and Eve fell from God’s grace, all of humanity has been tainted with sinful nature and no amount of good works or ritual sacrifice can atone for it. By dying on the cross, Christians believe that Jesus the son of God payed our debt and has allowed us to be granted eternal life by believing in him. While Jesus may have died, it is believed that God raised him from the dead and that he will “soon” return to judge the earth – bringing the kingdom of God with him.
Convinced that the kingdom of God was “at hand” and would arrive at any moment, followers of Jesus began spreading the good news of his death and resurrection. While most conversion naturally occurred through word of mouth, there came to be a small number of educated Christians living in the first century whose writing is dedicated to the early Christian mission. The New Testament, therefore, is an anthology of first century Christian texts which, Christians believe, were divinely inspired in order to deliver the message of Jesus’ “new covenant [testament]” with all humanity. It is important to note that although the 27 writings which make up the New Testament are our earliest Christian sources, they are far from our only texts from early Christianity that have survived. Indeed, outside the New Testament are dozens of other gospels, acts, letters, and apocalypses which didn’t make the cut into the orthodox canon – a process that didn’t even occur until the 4th century; in other words, there was no New Testament for the first three hundred years of the Christian movement! More shall be said about this fascinating part of Christian history later.
Overview of the New Testament
Gospels – Derived from the Old English gōd-spell, meaning “good news.” A gospel is an account of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection, serving as the context for the “good news” of the coming Kingdom of God and our redemption through Christ. All four gospels of the New Testament are anonymous, bearing titles attributed to them by the church many decades later. The first three are called the “Synoptic Gospels” due to their shared content.
- Matthew – traditionally ascribed to the apostle Matthew the tax collector, written around 85-90 CE. Much of Jesus’ teaching material is devoted to Jewish law and portrays Jesus as a new Moses, leading many scholars to believe that the anonymous author was probably a Jew. Unique literary contributions include the visit of the magi to the infant Jesus, the flight to Egypt, and the Sermon on the Mount.
- Mark – traditionally ascribed to John Mark, the companion of the apostle Peter, written around 65-70 CE – making it our earliest (and shortest) written gospel. Both Matthew and Luke use much of Mark’s text. No birth narrative is included; Mark account begins with Jesus’ public ministry and his relationship with John the Baptist. Furthermore, the anonymous author makes it clear who Jesus was in the first verse, calling him “Christ, the Son of God.” Interestingly, it is not until halfway through the gospel that the disciples begin to piece together Jesus’ true identity (8:27-30). The original ending to the gospel ends at 16:8 with the women fleeing the empty tomb, too afraid to say anything to anyone; the reason for this consensus is because our earliest manuscripts of Mark and other ancient witnesses do not have verses 9-20.
- Luke – traditionally ascribed to Luke, the Gentile traveling companion of Paul, written around 85-95 CE. The anonymous author also wrote the Book of Acts. The author addresses his gospel to someone called “most excellent Theophilus” (1:3) – “Theophius” (θεόφιλος) meaning friend/beloved of God in Greek; whether it is used here as an honorary title or the person’s actual name is debatable. Like Matthew, Luke uses the gospel of Mark and the lost “Q” gospel as a source. Luke’s gospel also has a birth narrative at its beginning, but one that is different from Matthew’s in many ways.
- John – traditionally ascribed to John, the son of Zebedee, composed around 90-95 CE by an anonymous author probably living outside of Palestine. He claims to have used the testimony of one of Jesus’ closest followers as one of his sources (19:35; 21:24) – whom he refers to as the “disciple whom Jesus loved” (21:7). It is widely thought that John’s gospel was written separately from the other gospels, depending on other traditions. This explains why John contrasts with the synoptic on many literary and theological elements; only in John is Jesus portrayed as explicitly divine, equal with god and having existed from the very beginning (1:1-18); contrast to Mark who has Jesus die on Passover, in John Jesus is crucified on the Day of Preparation for the Passover – a difference which allows the author symbolize Jesus as the Passover lamb who was sacrificed for our sins.
- Acts of the Apostles – The sequel to Luke’s gospel, written by the same author. It tells the story of what happened to the apostles post-resurrection: Matthias is chosen to replace Judas, who had recently killed himself; the twelve receive the Holy Spirit together in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, allowing them to go forth and preach the gospel; Peter and John start venturing around healing folks and causing trouble with the religious authorities; Steven is stoned to death for his preaching; the Christian persecutor Saul of Tarsus has a vision and converts, becoming the face of the early Church with the congregations he plants all over. It can be argued that the Acts of the Apostles should actually be titled “The Acts of Paul and some of the Apostles,” as Paul’s story takes up the majority of the content.
- Letters of Paul – The letters, or epistles, of the apostle Paul make up approximately one-third of the New Testament canon. These are letters addressed to churches Paul founded, usually in a response to problems occurring in the congregation. Of the thirteen letters, seven are believed to be authentically written by Paul, written during his mission between 50-60 CE – making them our earliest Christian sources. The other letters (*) are probably psedepigraphic (falsely attributed), written by later Christians who wrote in Paul’s name to give authority to their writing, though scholars are more divided in regards to Coloassians and 2 Thessalonians.
- Romans – Paul’s letter to Christians in Rome to introduce his teachings to them. His gospel message can be summarized as follows: 1. Jesus came from God; 2. Jesus was crucified; 3. Jesus was raised from the dead; 4. God gave the Holy Spirit; 5. Jesus is returning very soon; 6. Repent and be baptized in preparation for his return. Moreover, Paul preaches that we are justified by faith, not by work (5:1).
- 1 Corinthians – Paul’s first letter to his church he had established in Corinth, Greece. During the Apostle Paul’s third missionary trip around 55 AD, he receives a letter from them seeking his valued advice. He learns that since his departure three years ago, the community has split into factions and is engaging in all kinds of unacceptable behavior: sexual immorality, taking each other to court, participating in idolatrous feasts, the rich eating all the food at the Lord’s Supper, etc. To Paul, they are falling away from Christian principles and need to be brought back together in harmony as a unified Church. The Pauline letter of the New Testament known as 1 Corinthians is that response.
- 2 Corinthians – The second surviving letter Paul wrote to the church in Corinth, probably composed between 53 and 57 CE during his residency in Ephesus. In it Paul tells the congregation to forgive a man they had expelled now that he has repented; that we don’t sell God’s word for profit; the Old Covenant brought death while the new one under Jesus brings eternal life; when the resurrection comes we will receive new bodies which will never decay; do not commit idolatry and avoid gossip. In his final warning, Paul encourages the Corinthians to remain faithful to Jesus and the message of the good news.
- Galatians – Paul’s letter to “the churches in Galatia” (1:2), a Roman province in Asia Minor. In it Paul expresses amazement that the Galatians have abandoned the good news for legalism – an inferior, human construct. He also tells how he met the apostles in Jerusalem, though what he preaches came directly from Christ, not them. In fact, Paul criticized Peter for his hypocrisy, treatment of the Gentiles, and his failure to stand against encroaching legalism. In chapter four, Paul compares the slave Hagar to the Law, and Abraham’s wife, Sarah, to the gospel; his message is that we have been freed from the law thanks to Jesus’ sacrifice. Therefore, Jewish deeds such as circumcision no longer matter. What matters is believing in the gospel of Jesus Christ.
- *Ephesians – This letter – most likely not written by Paul but forged in his name – is addressed to Gentile Christians in the city of Ephesus and focuses on how Christians can better relate to God and to one another. The author states that all Christians, whether they be husbands and wives, slaves and masters, parents and children, should submit to each other – just as Jesus “loved the Church and gave himself up for her” (5:25).
- Philippians – Paul’s letter to Christians in the city of Philippi to inform them about his circumstances and what it means to have the mind of Christ. It was probably written in the late 50s, during Paul’s first imprisonment in Rome (Acts 28:11-31).
- *Colossians – Scholars are divided as to whether Paul did actually write the letter, which is written to the Christians living in the city of Colossae. In it the author discusses the supremacy of Christ, Paul’s ministry, and offers warning against error. The letter seems to have been written partly in response to a heretical teaching that had risen there – probably a form of Gnosticism.
- 1 Thessalonians – Paul’s letter to the Christians in the city of Thessalonica, written in response to a question regarding Christians who had died. He discusses living for God, the fate of those who have died before Jesus’ return, and about the nature of the church.
- *2 Thessalonians – A letter perhaps forged in the name of Paul in the later first century when a large number of Christians have passed away before Christ’s return, prompting this second letter to Christians in Thessalonica who at this point were afraid that Jesus had already returned and that they had somehow missed it. The author tells them not to believe any reports that Jesus has already come back, for Jesus warned us that he wouldn’t return until “the rebellion” occurs and “the man of lawlessness” is revealed.
- *1 Timothy – A letter most likely forged in the name of Paul to a young pastor named Timothy. The author discusses the practical problems Timothy faced regarding deacons, elders, widows, and money, and encourages him through the prophecies told about people in his condition. This letter is known for its intolerant stance on women, saying, “I do not permit a woman to teach or to assume authority over a man; she must be quiet (2:12).
- *2 Timothy – The seconds letter to Timothy, also most likely not authentic but a forgery written perhaps by one of Paul’s followers after his martyrdom. Like other probable forgeries in the New Testament, this scholarly consensus is largely based on unique vocabulary found in the letter. The author continues to encourage Timothy to stand firm in the faith and continue preaching the good news. He also explains how to deal with false teachers who quarrel about inconsequential matters.
- *Titus – Another likely forgery, this one addressed to a man named Titus. The author warns Titus about false teachers and encourages him to teach a truthful doctrine.
- Philemon – A very short letter addressed to a man named Philemon, a slave owner who lived in the Lycus Valley of Asia Minor. The topic concerns Philemon’s slave Onesimus whom Paul converted to Christianity after his escape. Paul writes asking Philemon to forgive his runaway slave, though doesn’t ask for his freedom. Rather, Paul asks that Onesimus be treated as an equal brother in Christ. Due to its divided message (that a slave should be treated well but not necessarily freed), this letter was used in the United States and Great Britain by both proponents and opponents of slavery in defense of their positions.
- General/Non-Pauline Letters
- Hebrews – An anonymous letter that discusses the superiority of Christ, along with offering some practical applications for living as a Christian. It is called “Hebrews” due to the fact that the author is writing to Jewish people instead of gentiles. Apologists today attribute the letter to the apostle Paul, which has no solid evidence to support it.
- James – A letter most scholars believe to be a forgery written in the name of James. In contrasts to the apostle Paul who firmly preaches that works are irrelevant to salvation, the author of James states that “faith without works is dead” (2:20-26) – reflecting the form of Jewish Christianity taught by Jesus’ brothers James and Peter in Palestine, before there was a strict separation between the Nazarene followers of Jesus and gentile Christians.
- 1 Peter – A letter which claims to be written by “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ,” though most scholars agree that it is a forgery. In it the author relates the privileges and responsibilities of Christians. He also encourages his readers to endure suffering and persecution.
- 2 Peter – A second forgery in the name of Peter, written to serve as a warning of false prophets. The author also offers encouragement about Jesus’ inevitable return.
- 1 John – The first of the three letters later attributed to the apostle John, the son of Zebedee. Unlike the other two, this one was written anonymously. In it the author describes God as light, righteous and loving. He points out that those who claim to be Christians but lack love are only fooling themselves.
- 2 John – The second letter attributed to John the apostle, who is different from “John the Elder” – whom the author introduces himself as in this letter as well as 3 John. The author warns his readers against deceivers and false teachers in the Church, such as those who deny that Jesus was a human being.
- 3 John – The third letter attributed to John the apostle. Like 2 John, the author here also introduces himself as “John the Elder.” The style and structure of the letter are very similar to the others, suggesting that they were written by the same author. The author of 3 John writes to a person named Gaius, encouraging him while complaining about a man named Diotephes who is showing ill treatment of other Christians. The author also praises a man named Demetrius; we have no information about any of the people mentioned in the letter. Arguments for its late authorship derive from the fact that 3 John contains expressions of opposition to Gnostic and Docetic teachings, movements that were only starting to become prominent at the end of the first century or early second century.
- Jude – A text whose author introduces himself as the brother of Jesus through his other sibling James, thought most scholars are convinced that this is a forgery. The author warns about the sin of false teachers and predicts their downfall, while also encouraging the faithful to persevere through suffering.
Apocalypses – There are many examples of other books that fall under the apocalyptic literary genre but which weren’t included into the New Testament canon, such as the Apocalypse of Moses, the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Book of Enoch, and 2 Esdras. These works are called apocalyptic because they center around a revelation of knowledge from God concerning the end of the world as we know it – a knowledge often presented through visions, dreams, angels, and mystical symbolism. The Book of Revelation was undoubtedly inspired by portions the books of the Hebrew Bible which contain apocalyptic features, namely Daniel, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and Isaiah.
- Revelation – The title of this dramatic work is rooted in the Greek word apokalysis (to uncover/reveal), which through Latin is translated as “revelation.” The Book of Revelation is therefore about the revealing of a series of visions about the end of the world when God and his angels will combat the forces of evil and Jesus the Son of Man will judge all of humanity. Though the author identifies himself as “John” who has been exiled to the Island of Patmos, practically all scholars agree that this is not the apostle John.
So far we’ve looked at the differences between a Jewish Bible and a Christian Bible. But even within Christianity bibles differ depending on the congregation, as Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox churches include fourteen books or parts of books in their Old Testament canon that Jews and Protestants have chosen to omit. As Stephen Harris writes, “Rabbis of the first centuries CE apparently decided not to recognize as authoritative Scripture about fourteen documents – including several additions to canonical Daniel and Esther – that had been included in the Septuagine or other Greek editions of the Tanakh. The Christian community, however, which used Greek editions of the Hebrew Bible, eventually regarded these fourteen books or parts of books as deutercanonical – belonging to a later second canon. In Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, deuterocanonical works are interspersed among the Prophets and Writings. Following the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries CE, however, most Protestant editions of the Bible either omitted deuterocanonical books altogether or relegated them to a separate unit between the Old and New Testaments. Taking the name that Jerome assigned them in the fourth century CE, these ‘supplementary’ books were called the Apocrypha.”
In short, Catholics include these extra books in their Old Testament and call them deuterocanonical meaning “second canon” (not to be confused with the book of Deuteronomy which means “second law”), where as Protestants do not include them and refer to them as the Apocrypha meaning “hidden.”
Overview of the Apocrypha
- 1 Maccabees
- 2 Maccabees
- Additions to Daniel
- Additions to Esther
- Letter of Jeremiah
- Ecclesiasticus/Wisdom of Jesus ben Sirach
- Wisdom of Solomon
- 2 Esdras
Sources and Further Readings:
- Simple chart of the Biblical canon
- Periodic Table of the Bible
- The two infancy narratives of Jesus
- The Bible: A Reader’s Guide by R.P. Nettelhorst