Enuma Elish References to Depiction of the Cosmos

enuma elish universe small

  1. Half of Tiamat was made as a cover, heaven/sky, to hold back the waters (4.138).
  2. Esharra, “House of the Universe” (the abode of Enlil) (4.144).
  3. The stars, assigning three stars to each month (5.2).
  4. The star Neberu to mark the stars’ relationships. There is debate as to whether it is Jupiter or Mercury (5.6).
  5. The moon, assigned to mark the day of the month (5.12). When the sun faces it from the horizon, it is commanded to wane (5.19).
  6. Clouds, made from the foam of Tiamat (5.49).
  7. The underground springs were opened, allowing for a flood to flow (5.54).
  8. From Tiamat’s eyes the Euphrates and Tigris rivers were created (5.55).
  9. High-peaked mountains were made from her dugs (5.57).
  10. Marduk coiled up Tiamat’s tail and tied it as “The Great Bond” – the link that holds heaven and the world below together (5.59).
  11. Her crotch was set as the brace of heaven (5.61).
  12. Earth was established with half of her cover (5.62).
  13. The netherworld was formed (5.65).
  14. Marduk creates Babylon, “Houses of the great gods”, as the terrestrial counterpart to Esharra. It is the center of the universe, above Apsu (water below the earth) and below heaven (5.120).
  15. He has the Anunna-gods make him a shrine (Esagila), his temple in Babylon – with its pinnacles facing toward the base of Esharra (6.51).
  16. He causes rainfall to make vegetation flourish (5.50; 7.69).

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